Afghanistan is a country situated in the south-west Asia. It borders with Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north; with China, India (disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan in the east; with Pakistan in the south; and with Iran in the west. The area of ​​the country is about 647,600 square kilometers. Afghanistan is a mountainous country: about three-quarters of the territory are covered by mountains and hills. In the north, there are several river valleys, in the south and south-west - the desert areas. The main mountain range of the country is the Hindu Kush, which stretches for 965 km from the Pamir in the north-east to the Iranian border in the west.

The average height of the Hindu Kush is about 4270 m, while some peaks reach a height of 7620 meters. The mountains are crossed by several passes, by means of which the interior regions of the country are connected. The lowest pass of the Hindu Kush is Shibari, located at an altitude of 2987 meters, which connects Kabul with the northern regions of the country. But the most famous is the Khyber Pass in the north-eastern border, connecting Afghanistan with Pakistan. The main rivers of Afghanistan are the Amu Darya on the border with Tajikistan; the Kabul, which flows into the Indus; the Helmand in the south and the Hari Rud in the west.