India is a country in South Asia. It is a federal republic consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories under the central government. India is also a part of the Commonwealth. It borders with Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan in the north; with Myanmar, Bangladesh in the east; and with Pakistan in the west. The country occupies a 3.3 million area. The Indian Union is composed of 28 states and seven union territories ruled by the center. The states are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chatisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odysseus, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Utranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Three new states - Chhatisgar, Jharkhand and Utranchal - were established quite recently. Among the union territories are the islands of Andeman and Nikoba, Chandigarh, Daman and Diyu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry.

India is located within three major orographic regions: the Himalayas, the Indo-Gangetic plain and the Deccan plateau of the Hindustan peninsula. Deccan is a vast ancient land mass, composed of Precambrian crystalline rocks, mainly gneisses, granites and slates. A significant part of the surface is covered with volcanic lava, with the largest lava cover in the north-west. Deccan was part of the ancient continent of Gondwana, uniting South America, Africa and India, which broke up into several parts approximately 200 million years ago. There is the vast Indo-Gangetic plain lying between Deccan and the Himalayas.

Part of the Eastern Himalayas within India is characterized by high altitudes, but the structure of the mountains is less complex. A swampy, jungle-covered strip of Terai stretches to the north of the Ganges valley (local name of its natural vegetable cover), above which a belt of merging proluvial trails rises gradually at the foot of the mountains Sivalik. Straight north tower the Lesser Himalayan ranges (up to 3000 m). The next stage of the altitude make the Great Himalayas (5500-5800 m), including Chomolungma (Everest, 8848 m) in Nepal and Kanchenjunga (8598 m), which is India’s highest point.